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Project-Teaching Pronunciation - Using the Prosody Pyramid
Andreia Tobias da Silva, Monica Recusani, Rosana A Marcondes
The role of pronunciation in spoken English is fundamental and is part of the second language acquisition because clearly affects the learner´s communicative abilities and process and improving students’ pronunciation, teachers will improve learners' confidence and motivation. Gilbert (2008) in his booklet Teaching Pronunciation - Using the Prosody Pyramid encourages students to gain confidence through practice, gives exercises and shows techniques teachers could use to teach each of these pronunciation elements interrelating the various aspects of English speech.
Based on his booklet this study aimed to determine the technical terminology referring to the phonological pronunciation patterns we concluded to be the most important. We have built up a glossary which included definitions and examples for improving and practicing of English speech. In order to reach our goal the group had to work hard and make several researches.
In the beginning, when we first read the article we found ourselves a little confused with all different technical terms, once the search of the vocabulary wasn’t an easy task achieve, so our group had to be very connected, sharing all the activities and maintaining a clear communication.
To prepare this work we have done both virtual discussions through e-mails and a face-to –face meeting in order to decide the steps that should be taken during all process of the glossary construction. The group read the article and each one made a list of words. Then we have compared and decided the most important ones. The sources of our research were internet sites, books, paper dictionary searches and our pronunciation classes which gave us all support we need to develop our glossary.
ALPHABET VOWEL see VOWEL, ALPHABET
AWARENESS – see AWARENESS, PHONEMIC
AWARENESS, PHONEMIC - A subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: blending sounds together to make a word,
identifying words that begin with the same letter,
breaking a word into individual sounds (READINGROCKETS, 2010)
Our Ex.: The teacher says a word "ball," and students say the individual sounds,
/b/, /ɑ/, and /l/,
Substitution initial sound to create a rhyming word: bat, mat, cat, hat,
The teacher says each sound /b/, /ɑ/, /l/ and students respond with the
CHUNK - Asubdivision of sentences into clusters according to prosodic patterns and pauses in reading. A typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words (KONTEXT, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: “The interested watcher could always observe the stars visible to the
naked eye”, the chunking will be as follows: [the interested watcher]
“I begin with an intuition: when I read a sentence,I read it a chunk at a
time.“, the chunking will be as follows [I begin] [with an intuition]:
[when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time] (KONTEXT,
“The bold man was sitting on his suitcase.” [The bold man] [was sitting
on] [his suitcase] (KONTEXT, 2010.)
Our Ex.: “It was a hard work” the chunking will be as follows [It was] [a hard
“I am going to the theater tomorrow the chunking will be as follows [I am going] [to the theater][tomorrow]
“I´ve cleaned my room.’ the chunking will be as follows [I´ve clened] [my romm]
CLARITY see VOWEL, CLARITY
CLAUSE -A closely related group of words that includes both a subject and a verb(CLIFFSNOTES, 2010)
Of. Ex.: The work(subject) was(verb) difficult. (CLIFFSNOTES, 2010)
My best friend (subject) has (verb) a show at the art gallery(CLIFFSNOTES, 2010)
Jack(subject) painted (verb) the fence. (CLIFFSNOTES, 2010)
Our Ex.: My brother (subject) got married (verb) yesterday.
The pen (subject) is (verb) very expensive.
I (subject) met (verb) Diane last week.
CLUSTER - A sequence of two or more consonants (especially sense 2) within a single morpheme or word. Languages differ markedly in their tolerance for such clusters (BOOKRAGS 2010.)
CONSONANT - 1. any speech sound in the production of which the speaker completely stops and then releases the air stream, as in (p, t, k, b, d, g), stops it at one point while it escapes at another, as in (m, n, ŋ, l, r), forces it through a loosely closed or very narrow passage, as in (f, v, s, z, s̸h, z̸h, t̸h, t̸h, H, kh, h, w, y), or uses a combination of these means, as in (c̸h, j)
2 a letter or symbol representing such a sound
3. Linguis. any phoneme, esp. one produced as described above, that does not form the peak of a syllable (YOURDICTIONARY 2010)
Of. Ex.: [p], pronounced with the lips,
[t], pronounced with the front of the tongue,
[k], pronounced with the back of the tongue (WIKIPEDIA 2010)
Our Ex: may, see, Tore
CONSONANT CLUSTER -Sometimes known as a consonant blend, consonant cluster is a group of consonants that appear together in a word without any vowels between them(FIRSTSCHOOLYEARS, 2010)
Of. Ex.: Glasses, Clock, (FIRSTSCHOOLYEARS, 2010)
Our Ex.: Hand, Sand, Class
CONSONANT, CONTINUANT - A consonant wherein the passage of air is restricted (but not stopped), causing friction while the sound continues. Continuants are sometimes called fricatives. The continuants are subdivided into the sibilant, compound, nasal, liquid, and semi-consonants (INTHEBEGINNING, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: shout, beige(INTHEBEGINNING, 2010.)
Our Ex.: general, zoo, basic
CONSONANT, STOP - A consonant whose sound is formed by slowing down or abruptly stopping the flow of air through the mouth before being released with an expulsion of breath and sound. (INTHEBEGINNING 2010)
Of. Ex.: baby, boy (INTHEBEGINNING, 2010.)
Our Ex.: go, pen, day
CONTENT WORD SEE WORD, CONTENT
CONTINUANT CONSONANT see CONSONANT, CONTINUANT
CONTRACTION - The shortening of a word, syllable, or word group by omission of internal letters (WIKIPEDIA 2010)
Of. Ex.: can't for "cannot", won't for "will not" (WIKIPEDIA 2010)
Our Ex.: I´d for “I would, I´m for “I am”, I'll for "I will"
CONTRAST - The opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared; "in contrast to", "by contrast": put in opposition to show or emphasize differences; to show differences when compared; be different; (WORDREFERENCE, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: table, garden (WIKIPEDIA, 2010)
Our Ex: Hand, Cat, Hot
CONTRASTIVE PRINCIPLE – The potential for conveying useful informationis greater when words which mark major conceptual divisions are used, compared to words which mark smaller conceptual distinction. This is used as the contrastive principle of meaning word.
Of. Ex.: cat and dog, spaniel and retriever (HARRIS, 2010)
Our Ex.: black and white, cold and hot, fat and thin
CONVERSATION - The interest in conversation for the phonetics specialist lies in the differences between conversational speech and monologue. Much linguistic analysis in the past has concentrated on monologue or on pieces of conversational speech taken out of context. Specialized studies of verbal interaction between speakers look at factors such as turn-taking, the way in which interruptions are managed, the use of intonation to control the course of the conversation and variations in rhythm. (ROACH, 2009)
DE-EMPHASIZIS - De-emphasize, de-emphasise, destress: reduce the emphasis
DISCOURSE - Although the word discourse has a general meaning that refers usually to speaking, in linguistics the field of discourse analysis has been a source of much interest for the last thirty years or so. It concentrates on language and speech as related to real-life interaction between speakers and hearers, looking at the different roles they play and the ways in which they interact. Discourse analysis has become relevant to phonetics and phonology because of what it has to say about intonation. (ROACH 2009.)
DISRUPTION - An act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; the act of causing disorder; an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity (WORDNIK, 2010)
Of. Ex.: An example of disruption could be a lesson that starts by explaining how to fire a weapon, telling a foxhole story about a grenade, and then continuing with explaining how to fire a weapon. (BDEYO.COM, 2010)
Vocal delivery is too soft to hear, too fast to understand and/or long, unintended silences and speech disruptions (repetitions; filled pauses, e.g., "um") frequently distract audience (USM, 2010)
DRILL - As an instructional strategy, drill & practice is familiar to all educators. It "promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice." It refers to small tasks such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words, or the practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be found in more sophisticated learning tasks or physical education games and sports. Drill-and-practice, like memorization, involves repetition of specific skills, such as addition and subtraction, or spelling. To be meaningful to learners, the skills built through drill-and-practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning. (SASKATOON PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 2010)
Of. Ex.: Drill and practice words and sounds that appear to be problems:drill the words "right" and light" to clarify the "r" and "l" sounds. (EHOW, 2010)
Drill work for the letters b and p: robe/rope, mob/mop, tab/tap, rib/rip,stable/staple, symbol/simple (DALE, 2005)
Our Ex.: drills with past tense verbs to help the student choose the correct ending and also to hear the differences between "-ed" endings
DURATION (C.F. LENGTHENING) see VOWEL,LONG; VOWEL, SHORT- The amount of time that a sound lasts for is a very important feature of that sound. In the study of speech it is usual to use the term length for the listener’s impression of how long a sounds lasts for, and duration for the physical, objectively measurable time. (ROACH, 2010.)
EMPHASIS - Focalization and/ or emphasis is said to be best manifested by an extra pitch prominence, giving rise to larger F0 movements often accompanies by extra intensity and duration. (CITERSEERX, 2010)
EMPHASIS SYSTEM, see EMPHASIS
EMPHASIS, SENTENCE - Forms to emphasize statements when expressing opinions, disagreeing, making strong suggestions, expressing annoyance, etc. (ABOUT, 2010)
Of. Ex: The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action. Generally, more emphasis is given to the beginning of a sentence. By using a passive sentence, we emphasize by showing what happens to something rather than who or what does something: Reports are expected by the end of the week.Attention is called to what is expected of students (reports). (ABOUT, 2010)
Use the continuous form modified by 'always', 'forever', etc. to express annoyance at another person's action. This form is considered an exception as it used to express a routine rather than an action occurring at a particular moment in time. Martha is always getting into trouble. Peter is forever asking tricky questions. George was always being reprimanded by his teachers. This form is generally used with the present or past continuous (he is always doing, they were always doing). (ABOUT, 2010)
Our ex.: Do you study French? Yes, I do. (short answer)
You made the exercises. No, we didn´t. Paul made it. (contradict whatsomeone has said)
Mary broke all glasses.
EMPASIS, INTONATIONAL - Emphasis on certain words to convey meaning. (MDK, 2010)l
FOCUS WORD see WORD, FOCUS
FUNCTION WORD see WORD, FUNCTION
INTELLIGIBILITY - Intelligibility is recognized as a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages can readily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. It is sometimes used as one criterion for distinguishing languages from dialects, though sociolinguistic factors are also important. Intelligibility between languages can be asymmetric, with speakers of one understanding more of the other than speakers of the other understand of the first. It is when it is relatively symmetric that it is characterized as 'mutual'. It exists in differing degrees among many related or geographically proximate languages of the world, often in the context of a dialect continuum (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
INTONATION - 1.the pattern or melody of pitch changes in connected speech, esp. the pitch pattern of a sentence, which distinguishes kinds of sentences or speakers of different language cultures.
2. the act or manner of intonating.
3. the manner of producing musical tones, specifically the relation in pitch of tones to their key or harmony.
4. something that is intoned or chanted.
5. the opening phrase in a Gregorian chant, usually sung by one or two voices.
(DICTIONARY REFERENCE, 2010).
Of. Ex.: You're going. (statement)
You're going? (question) (UMANITOBA, 2010)
Our Ex. I want a new car for my birthday.
You are living?
I want it right now.
INTONATIONAL EMPHASIS see EMPHASIS, INTONATIONAL
IPA SYMBOLS - The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners (ANTIMOON, 2010.)
KAZOO - An instrument that imparts a buzzing quality to the human voice and that usually consists of a small metal or plastic tube with a side hole covered by a thin membrane. (MERRIAM-WEBSTER, 2010.)
KINESTHETIC PARTS - The sensation of movement or strain in muscles, tendons, and joints; muscle sense (DICTIONARY REFERENCE, 2010.)
LENGTH see VOWEL, LONG; VOWEL, SHORT
LENGTHENING (C.F. DURATION; VOWEL, LONG)
LETTER - There are 26 letters in the English alphabet; the letters are the individual characters that are used to represent sounds in a written form, either individually or in combination with other letters. Letters can be either lower or upper case. The latter are the larger versions of the letters that occur at the start of a sentence or the beginning of a proper noun and the term capital letter is also widely used for them. Lower case letters are used for the other transcriptions of the word or the sentence (USINGENGLISH, 2010.)
LINKING - When we say a sentence in English, we join or "link" words to each other. Because of this linking, the words in a sentence do not always sound the same as when we say them individually. Linking is very important in English. If you recognize and use linking, two things will happen: you will understand other people more easily; other people will understand you more easily. There are basically two types of linking: consonant > vowel. We link words ending with a consonant sound to words beginning with a vowel sound vowel > vowel. We link words ending with a vowel sound to words beginning with a vowel sound. (ENGLISHCLUB, 2010.)
Sit on an orange crate.(Sit ton nan norange crate.)PRONUNCIATIONTIPS, 2010.)
LINKING WORDS - Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow your ideas (ENGLISH-AT-HOME, 2010)
Of. Ex.: And – We discussed training, education and the budget
As well as – We are interested in costs as well as the competition.
LIPS - The lips are extremely mobile and active articulators in speech. In addition to being used to make complete closure for p, b, m they can be brought into contact with the teeth or the tongue. The ring of muscles around the lips makes it possible for them to be rounded and protruded. They are so flexible that they can be used to produce a trill (ROACH, 2009)
LIP-ROUNDING - In American English consists of three types: slight, tight and none. Slight lip-rounding is used on "sh, ch, r, and j." Tight lip-rounding is used to create the "w" sound. "L" is made with none. This information is extremely useful for non-native English speakers whose native sounds are created using different articulatory muscles. For example, the difference between "r" and "l" can be taught using training in lip-rounding and tongue placement.
LISTENER-FRIENDLY PRONUNCIATION see PRONUNCIATION, LISTENER-FRIENDLY
LONG SOUND see VOWEL, LONG
LONG VOWEL, SEE VOWEL, LONG
LOUDNESS - We have instrumental techniques for making scientific measurements of the amount of energy present in sounds, but we also need a word for the impression received by the human listener, and we use loudness for this. We all use greater loudness to overcome difficult communication conditions (for example, a bad telephone line) and to give strong emphasis to what we are saying, and it is clear that individuals differ from each other in the natural loudness level of their normal speaking voice. Loudness plays a relatively small role in the stressing of syllables, and it seems that in general we do not make very much linguistic use of loudness contrasts in speaking (ROACH 2009.)
MAIN STRESS see STRESS, MAIN
MELODIC CUES see PHONETICS CUES
MELODY - 1 : a sweet or agreeable succession or arrangement of sounds : tunefulness
2 : a rhythmic succession of single tones organized as an aesthetic whole (MERRIAM-WEBSTER, 2010)
MINIMAL PAIR - Two words that have just one small difference in sound with different meanings. Also called close pairs. (USINGENGLISH 2010)
Of.l Ex.: Sheepship, Menman(USINGENGLISH 2010)
Our Ex.: time dime, crab grab, light slide
NUCLEUS see SYLLABLE PEAK
OFF-GLIDES - An off-glide is a movement which occurs as the articulators leave the position taken up by one speech sound and travel towards the position required for the next sound (or to a position of rest) (GLOTTOPEDIA, 2010)
PAUSE - 1.a temporary stop or rest, esp. in speech or action: a short pause after each stroke of the oar,
2. a break or rest in speaking or reading to emphasize meaning, grammatical relation, metrical division, etc., or in writing or printing by the use of punctuation.
3. Prosody. a break or suspension, as a caesura, in a line of verse. (USINGENGLISH 2010)
PEAK - Every English syllable has a center or peak, an element which is [+syllabic] (KREIDLER, 2004)
PHONEME - An important part of phonology is the study of those sounds that form distinct units within a language. The smallest unit of sound that can, in itself, alter the meaning of a word is called a phoneme. Although there are 26 letters in the English alphabet, it's interesting to note that there are around 44 phonemes in the dialect called Standard English. This means that letters cannot represent phonemes as such and so other symbols are used. Each phoneme is given a symbol so that the accurate pronunciation of any English word can be represented in writing(ENGLISHBIZ, 2010.)
PHONEMICS see PHONOLOGY
PHONETICS - The study of the way people physical produce and perceive the different sounds we use to create speech. These sounds are called phonemes and are created by the various 'organs of speech' in the body, including the tongue, the soft and hard palate, lips, pharynx, etc. Phonetics, unlike phonology, is not concerned in any way with the meaning connected to these sounds (ENGLISHBIZ 2010.)
PHONETIC CUES - 1) Say the beginning sound of the intended word,
2) Say a word fragment containing one or more of the beginning syllables of an intended polysyllabic word,
3) Give a rhyming word cue,
4) Use phonetic placement; that is, show the posture and position of the articulators of the beginning sound of the intended word (OAFCCD, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: “m” to elicit the word "man", "hippo" to elicit the word "hippopotamus", reciting "sing" or "wing" to facilitate the recall of an intended word such as "ring", pursing the lips for the sh- sound to elicit the word "shoe"
PHONICS - A method for teaching speakers of English to read and write that language. Phonics involves teaching how to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, ck or ch spellings) and teaching them to blend the sounds of letters together to produce approximate pronunciations of unknown words. (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
PHONOLOGY - The study of the way speech sounds are structured and how these are combined to create meaning in words, phrases and sentences. Phonology can be considered an aspect of grammar and, just as there are grammar 'rules' that apply to the syntax of a sentence and the morphology of words, there are phonological rules, too. Phonology also covers the study of important sound features such as rhythm, pitch, tone, melody, stress and intonation. These phonologicalfeatures of language are aspects of prosody - they are referred to as the prosodic or suprasegmental features of language. (ENGLISHBIZ, 2010.)
PHRASE - A group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate -- a group of grammatically-linked words with a subject and predicate is called a clause
Of. Ex.: In the house, Out of here, At the museum (ARTS UOTTAWAL, 2010.)
Our Ex.: The ugly cat, In front of you, Has been drinking
PITCH - Pitch is an auditory sensation: when we hear a regularly vibrating sound such as a note played on a musical instrument, or a vowel produced by the human voice, we hear a high pitch if the rate of vibration is high and a low pitch if the rate of vibration is low. Many speech sounds are voiceless (e.g. s), and cannot give rise to a sensation of pitch in this way. The pitch sensation that we receive from a voiced sound corresponds quite closely to the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds; however, we usually refer to the vibration frequency as fundamental frequency in order to keep the two things distinct. (KREIDLER, 2004.)
PITCH CHANGE - Pitch is used in many languages as an essential component of the pronunciation of a word, so that a change of pitch may cause a change in meaning: these are called tone languages. In most languages (whether or not they are tone languages) pitch plays a central role in intonation. (KREIDLER, 2004.)
PITCH DROP - American English uses a pitch drop at the end of the sentence. The pitch of our voice goes up on the next to the last syllable and then down on the last syllable in a spoken statement. How quickly the pitch is dropped makes a difference. (BOOKS GOOGLE, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: Danny arrived lAte, so he missed half the mOvie.
Phone number: 391-456-3304
777-2340 (BOOKS GOOGLE, 2010.)
PITCH PATTERN - The pitch pattern of a word is indicated (throughout these pages and in the dictionary) as a number plus a mark. The number represents the syllable after which the change is located, and the mark shows whether it is a pitch fall (a backslash, '\') or a pitch rise (a forward slash, '/'). For example:
Of. Ex.:adamet [1/]a DA MET,seosie [1\]SEO sie,dubelet [2\]
DU BE let ...
PRONUNCIATION, LISTENER-FRIENDLY - The act of uttering with articulation; the act of giving the proper sound and accent; utterance; as, the pronunciation of syllables of words; distinct or indistinct pronunciation. The art of manner of uttering a discourse publicly with propriety and gracefulness; The mode of uttering words or sentences. (ONELOOK 2010)
PROSODIC - It is traditional in the study of language to regard speech as being basically composed of a sequence of sounds (vowels and consonants); the term prosody and its adjective prosodic is then used to refer to those features of speech (such as pitch) that can be added to those sounds, usually to a sequence of more than one sound. A number of aspects of speech can be identified as significant and regularly used prosodic features; the most thoroughly investigated is intonation, but others include stress, rhythm, voice quality, loudness and tempo (speed) (ROACH, 2009.)
PROSODY - The rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of a speaker; whether an utterance is a statement, a question, or a command; whether the speaker is being ironic or sarcastic; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary (WIKIPEDIA 2010)
PROSODY PYRAMID – The English prosodic system. (GILBERT, 2008)
QUALITY REPETITION see REPETITION, QUALITY
REDUCED VOWEL see VOWEL, REDUCTION
REDUCTION - Reductions are reduced forms of English words. Reductions, such as wanna (want + to ) are not real words in English. You need to use reductions in order to sound more natural. You need to know reductions in order to understand conversations between native English speakers. Reductions are used extensively in American TV, movies, music, literature, and in conversations among native English speakers. (FUNEASYENGLISH, 2010)
Of. Ex.: Frunna - formation: frunna = front + of: Your shoes are in frunna the
door. (FUNEASYENGLISH, 2010)
Kinda - formation: kinda = kind + of: I kinda like eating at restaurants.(FUNEASYENGLISH, 2010)
Our Ex.: Whassup? (What+is+up)
Whatser name? (What+is+her)
Whatiz name? (What+is+his)
RELATIVE VOWEL see VOWEL, RELATIVE
REPETITION, QUALITY - The quality repetition teaching and internalizes a piece of spoken English in which all the levels of the Prosody Pyramid are present and at work. This is a way for students to create, and later to find in their own memory banks, a reference for understanding how melody and rhythm affect the number of syllables, the length of the peak vowels, the location of pitch change, the changes in quality of the sounds, and other features of an English utterance. (GILBERT, 2008)
RHYTHM: In phonetics, the sense of movement in speech, marked by the stress, timing, and quantity of syllables (GRAMMAR ABOUT, 2010.)
SCHWA, SHWA - 1. (Linguistics / Phonetics & Phonology) a central vowel represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by (ə). The sound occurs in unstressed syllables.
2. (Linguistics / Phonetics & Phonology) the symbol (ə) used to represent this sound (THEFREEDICTIONARY, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: The a is schwa in adept, The i is schwa in decimal, The e is schwa in
synthesis (ENGLISH PLUS, 2010)
Our Ex.: 'a' in about[əˈbaʊt],the 'e' in taken[ˈteɪkən], the 'i' in pencil[ˈpɛnsəl]
SEGMENT (c.f. SEGMENTAL) - In linguistics (specifically, phonetics and phonology), the term segment may be defined as "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech." Segments are called "discrete" because they are separate and individual, such as consonants and vowels, and occur in a distinct temporal order. Other units, such as tone, stress, and sometimes secondary articulations such as nasalization, may coexist with multiple segments and cannot be discretely ordered with them. These elements are termed suprasegmental. In phonetics, the smallest perceptible segment is a phone. In phonology, there is a subfield of segmental phonology that deals with the analysis of speech into phonemes (or segmental phonemes), which correspond fairly well to phonetic segments of the analysed speech. (WIKIPEDIA, 2010)
SEGMENTAL (c.f. SEGMENT) - The individual sounds (segments) of a language that are arranged to construct words or utterances. (CZ-TRAINING, 2010.)
SENTENCE - A sequence of words constructed in accordance with the conventions of standard grammar. Such a group will have a sense of completeness and a clarity of meaning. It will usually be constructed around a noun phrase acting as the subject of a finite verb, i.e. it will contain at least one main clause. The rules of grammar concern the order of words in a sentence, technically called its syntax and the form of the words, called their morphology. (ENGLISHBIZ, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: 'The cat sat on the mat.' - standard syntax and morphology (i.e.
'The cat sitted the mat on.' - non-standard morphology
'The cat on the mat sat.' - non-standard syntax (ENGLISHBIZ, 2010.)
Our Ex.: She went to the club yesterday. The club is in front of the school. The
book is very interesting
SENTENCE EMPHASIS see EMPHASIS, SENTENCE
SENTENCE STRESS - The music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress helps to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". Word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.
Of. Ex.: SELLCARGONEFRANCE (This sentence not
SELLmyCARI´veGONEtoFRANCE (The new words do
not really add any more information)
Will you SELL my CARbecause I´ve GONEto FRANCE? (ENGLISHCLUB, 2010.)
Our Ex.: They've been to Miami recently, haven't they?"
"No, THEY haven't, but WE have
SHORT SOUND see VOWEL, SHORT
SHORT VOWEL see VOWEL, SHORT
SHORT SOUND see VOWEL, SHORT
SPEECH - Communication through spoken words. The study of speech sounds is the branch of linguistics known as phonetics. The study of sound changes in a language is phonology. (GRAMMAR ABOUT, 2010)
Of. Ex.: "If I could just say a few words . . . I'd be a better public speaker."
(Homer Simpson beginning a speech, The Simpsons) (GRAMMAR ABOUT, 2010)
Our Ex.: Have you done the English lesson? Have you done the English lesson?
Have you done the English lesson?
STOP - A speech sound which is produced with complete closure in some part of the vocal tract; also called plosive. When a stop is articulated, either the lower lip or some part of the tongue is in contact with some other part of the mouth – the upper lip or some part of the roof of the mouth. (KREIDLER, 2004)
STOP CONSONANT see CONSONANT, STOP - When there is some interruption of the breath stream, as there is for stops, the segment is [+ consonantal]. (KREIDLER, 2004)
STRESS - In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense (ENCYCLOPEDIA THEFREEDICTIONARY, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: I didn't take the test yesterday. (Somebody else did.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did not take it.)
I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did something else with it.)(WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Our Ex.: Have you done the English lesson? Have you done the English lesson?
Have you done the English lesson?
STRESS, MAIN - In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. The word accent is sometimes also used with this sense. (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Of. Ex.:photographer, computer (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Our Ex.: Comfortable,Literature, Biology
STRESS PATTERN - Not all languages make use of the possibility of using stresson different syllables of a polysyllabic word: in English, however, the stress pattern is an essential component of the phonological form of a word, and learners of English either have to learn the stress pattern of each word, or to learn rules to guide them in how to assign stress correctly (or, quite probably, both). (ROACH, 2009.)
Of. Ex.: the word ‘fifteenth’ in isolation is stressed on the second syllable, but in
‘fifteenth place’ the stress is on the first syllable.
In place names: the name ‘Wolverhampton’ is stressed on the third
syllable, but in the name of the football team ‘Wolverhampton Wanderers’ the stress is usually found on the first syllable. (ROACH, 2009.)
STRESS, SENTENCE see WORD, FOCUS
STRESS, WORD - (Linguistics / Phonetics & Phonology) The stress accent on the syllables of individual words either in a sentence or in isolation. There are two very simple rules about word stress: One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.) We can only stress vowels, not consonants. (COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: PRESent, EXport, CHIna, Table (COLLINS ENGLISH
Our ex.: personNEL, TOtally, inDUstrial
STRESSED SYLLABLE see STRESS, WORD
STRUCTURE WORD see WORD, STRUCTURE
SYLLABLE - A unit of sound composed of: The central peak of sonority (usually a vowel) and that the consonants clusters around this central peak (SIL, 2010)
Of. Ex.: wa – ter – 2 syllables, man – 1 syllable (SIL, 2010)
Our Ex.: com – pu – ter – 3 syllables, class – 1 syllable, cle – ver – 2 syllables
SYLLABLE, PEAK - In phonetics and phonology, the nucleus (sometimes called peak) is the central part of the syllable, most commonly a vowel. In addition to a nucleus, a syllable may begin with an onset and end with a coda, but in most languages the only part of a syllable that is mandatory is the nucleus. The nucleus and coda form the rime of the syllable. Diphthongs and triphthongs can also serve as the nucleus. Syllables with short vowels as nuclei are sometimes referred to as "light syllables" while syllables with long vowels, diphthongs, or triphthongs as nuclei are referred to as "heavy syllables"; Sonorant consonants such as liquids (such as [r] and [l]) and nasals (such as [m] and [n]) can serve as the nucleus if there is no vowel. The nucleus of the last syllable in the final example at right is an example of a sonorant nucleus (WIKIPEDIA, 2010)
TEMPLATE- The template used may be a longer piece of spoken English – perhaps a longer sentence (with more than one clause) or more than one sentence (e.g., a question and response paired together). The template focus on emphasizing the focus word with a pitch change, or on reducing a pronoun to schwa, or lengthening a vowel sound before a voiced consonant (GILBERT, 2008)
Of. Ex.: “How many …?”, “Do you …?” (GILBERT, 2008)
Our Ex.: “I´m going to…”, “Did you …?”, “Will you…?”
THE PERFECTION TRAP see TRAP, THE PERFECTION
THOUGHT GROUP - When speaking, divide longer sentences into two or more sections, or thought groups. A thought groupis a portion of a sentence set off from the rest by a pause or pauses. When we pause in a sentence, it is usually for one of three reasons: to make the meaning clear, for emphasis and to have sufficient breath support when producing longer sentence. (PRONUNCIATIONWORKSHOP, 2010.)
Of. Ex.:I was about to leave my house, (pause) when I realized that I left all the
Frankly my dear, (pause) I don't give a damn (famous quote from the
movie "Gone with the Wind").
My spouse and I decided to remodel our house, (pause) and then we realized (pause) that the money we would spend on remodeling (pause) we could put towards the purchase of an even nicer home (pause) in a better neighborhood. (PRONUNCIATIONWORKSHOP, 2010.)
Our Ex.: In case you haven't heard / our pronunciation test / has been postponed.
We must finish our glossary / with an even number of words.
In terms of orientation, / the students of our school / are well prepared.
TRANSCRIPTION - A universal system for transcribing sounds that occur in spoken language. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA), uses a one-to-one mapping between phones and written symbols. The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently between different languages. It can also indicate common pronunciations of words (Sribd 2010)
Of. Ex.:no: //, do: // (ANTIMOON, 2010)
Our Ex.: head /hed/ , place /pleis/, else / els/
TRAP, THE PERFECTION - Speaking like a native speaker. (MORLEY 1992).
UTTERANCE - The act of uttering, or expressing by voice, the power or style of speaking that which is uttered; esp., a word or words uttered, whether written or spoken (YOURDICTIONARY, 2010.)
VOICED CONSONANT - Voiced consonants are consonant sounds that are made by vibrating the vocal chords. (TEACHINGENGLISH, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: /b/ as in bed, Ex: /d/ as in dip, Ex: /g/ as in 'good'(TEACHINGENGLISH, 2010.)
Our ex.: [d] (den), [ɡ] (gone), [v](van)
VOLUME see LOUDNESS
VOWEL, ALPHABET see ALPHABET VOWEL - 1. Phonetics. a. (in English articulation) a speech sound produced without occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from the lungs (opposed to consonant). b. (in a syllable) the sound of greatest sonority, as i in grill. Compare consonant (def. 1b).c. (in linguistic function) a concept empirically determined as a phonological element in structural contrast with consonant, as the (ē) of be (bē), we (wē), and yeast (yēst).
2. a letter representing or usually representing a vowel, as, in English, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y (DICTIONARY, 2010.)
VOWEL CLARITY (CLARITY) - Besides length, the most significant signal of stress in English is clarity. All stressed vowels are clearly distinguished from each other, while most unstressed vowels are reduced to schwa. Schwa, /ə/, is the sound of the second vowel in sofa or lemon or the first and last vowels in banana. It is not only very short, but has an unclear, obscured quality. This lack of clarity operates as a contrastive background to highlight the stressed vowel, which needs to be quite clear. (GILBERT, 2008)
VOWEL LENGTH - 'Length' or 'quantity' refers to how long the vowel production lasts; this is shown by the use dots immediately after the vowel symbol in phonetic transcription(CITIZENDIUM, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: : [i] versus [i:], for instance, with [i:] being a long vowel.
VOWEL, LONG (c.f. LENGTHENING) - In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. Often the chroneme, or the "longness", acts like a consonant, and may etymologically be one such as in Australian English. (EHOW, 2010.)...
Of. Ex.: play, feed (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
VOWEL, REDUCTION - The Vowel sound that forms the Syllable Peak of a Syllable that has no Lexical Stress . This sound is typically a Schwa , although there are other vowels that can be unstressed or reduced. A ''reduced'' vowel is one of the vowels that can only occur in unstressed syllables, like schwa, and an ''unstressed'' vowel is one of the vowels that can be stressed but is not. (INFORMATIONDELIGHT, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: The ''i'' in ''decimal'', The ''y'' in ''syringe''. (INFORMATIONDELIGHT,
Our Ex.: The ''a'' in ''about'', The ''o'' in ''harmony'', The ''u'' in ''medium''.
VOWEL, SHORT - One in which the duration of its pronunciation is relatively shorter than that of a long vowel. (EHOW, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: crab, sled (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Our Ex.: act, Jack, bag
VOWEL SOUND - Is an OPEN sound, ie. it is produced by not blocking the breath with the lips, teeth, or tongue. ... is always voiced (VD), ie. the vocal cords vibrate (ELEASTON, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: fish, tree, cat (ELEASTON, 2010.)
Our Ex.: Hit -not Heet or Heat, Heat - not Hit, Beat – not Bit
VOWEL, PEAK see PEAK
VOWEL, RELATIVE - The relative vowel sounds (as in bat, bet, bit, hot, and cup), do not have offglides. These sounds are the most common pronunciation of the vowel letters, but they are more challenging to learn because they are typically foreign to many English learners. Distinguishing the alphabet and relative vowel pairs requires a lot of listening practice. Relative vowel has a different sound for the alphabet vowels (GILBERT, 2008.)
Of. Ex.: Pat, Ben, Bill, Joe, sun (GILBERT, 2008.)
WORD STRESS see STRESS, WORD
WORD, CONTENT see CONTENT WORD - Words that are not function words are called content words (or open class words or lexical words): these include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs, although some adverbs are function words Content words are words that have meaning.They are words we would look up in a dictionary, such as "lamp," "computer," "drove."New content words are constantly added to the English language; old content words constantly leave the language as they become obsolete.Therefore, we refer to content words as an "open" class. (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Of. Ex.:The lamp(noun) broke(verb), I drove(verb) my car.(noun) (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
WORD, FOCUS - In the generative approach, the term focus is used to refer to words or expressions that are either prosodically or syntactically prominent, generally because they introduce “new” information. In the functional approach, the term focus is used to refer to words or expressions that establish coherence in the text or conversation. In generative linguistics, focus determines which part of the sentence contributes new or “textually and situationally non-derivable information. Focus also relates to phonology and has ramifications for how and where suprasegmental information such as rhythm, stress, and intonation is encoded in the grammar, and in particular intonational tunes which mark focus. Speakers can use pitch accents on syllables to indicate what word(s) are in focus. New words are often accented while given words are not. The accented word(s) forms the focus domain. However, not all of the words in a focus domain need be accented (WIKIPEDIA, 2010.)
Of. Ex.: Did you see a grey dog or a cat? I saw [a grey DOG] f.
Did you see a grey dog or a grey cat? I saw a grey [DOG] f.
Did you see a grey dog or a black dog? I saw a [GREY] f dog. (WIKIPEDIA,
Our Ex.:”I´m driving to CAMPINAS.” (location)
“I´m DRIVING to Campinas.” (means of transport)
“I´M driving to Campinas.” (who drives)
WORD FUNCION see WORD, STRUCTURE
WORD, STRUCTURE - Basically words can be divided into two categories: content words and structure words. Content words are those which carry the basic meaning of a sentence, such as nouns and verbs. Structure words, also called function words, show grammatical relationship, such as pronouns and prepositions. In general, content words need to emphasized, while structure words are usually de-emphasized and reduced (NKFUST, 2010.)
Our Ex.: the, a, an, next to, in front of, but, as
Our initial difficult was due to the insufficient background about the subject. There wasn´t previous knowledge and as we were watching our pronunciation class our job became a little easier because many terms were explained during those classes and we could realize how necessary the words in this glossary would be to develop our knowledge related to pronunciation and teaching pronunciation. So, we were able to determine the terminology and to list the key words referring to the pronunciation context based on the booklet Teaching Pronunciation from Gilbert (2008)
Our goal was reached, for an obvious reason: We feel more secure about the phonetic work. We have already had conditions to think about how to develop learners’ ´ability. We have reached bases to build a critical point of view on our own practice and questions like “how to approach them”? have already been answered. Personally, taboos were broken; difficulties were overcome, just because we have acted such as a committed group.
So , it is worth to say that isn’t easy to learn a second language, especially when we think about pronunciation, , that is why it is essential for the professional to master the vocabulary of Phonetic and Phonology in order to teach an advanced pronunciation and our job was to provide the most important terms This glossary is not only dedicated to those who are interested in that language and would like to know a little more about the vocabulary of English Pronunciation.